K LAXMA GOUD

Born 1940, Andhra Pradesh, India

Diploma, Government College of Art and Architecture, Hyderabad (1963)
Studied Mural Painting and Printmaking at M.S. University, Baroda (1963-65)
Lives and works in Hyderabad

Laxma Goud is recognized for his graceful, yet powerful line drawings, etchings and watercolors. The artist was born in Nizampur, Andhra Pradesh in 1940 and earned a diploma in drawing and painting from the Government College of Art and Architecture, Hyderabad, in 1963. He then studied mural painting and printmaking at M.S. University, Baroda. By the late 1960s, Goud had developed a distinct style with finely chiseled, yet pliant lines and delicate washes of color that he used to depict man's interaction with nature.

According to Goud, 'there is eroticism in nature itself." Humor, earthiness and vitality emerge as Goud transforms the characters of his works - man into goat, goat into woman, and man and woman peer lustfully at each other. Goud also explores man's connection to his environment. From men, women, goats, huts to vegetation, Laxma's simple images reflect an idyllic reality that is slowly being threatened by urbanisation. The works recreate the rural landscape as if it is frozen in time. The color, innocence, simplicity, flora and fauna are indicative of the bucolic naivety.

Apart from Goud's great narrative ability, the artist's remarkable skill and sophistication in handling his medium (pencil or brush) are evident. A master draughtsman, Goud is a versatile printmaker and painter and has worked in a variety of mediums: etching, gouache, pastel and grass paintings. Incisiveness, hatched lines and a keen eye for detail have been his trademark forte. He was a favored artist by the Herwitzes and was the most represented artist in their collection.


Select Solo Exhibitions

2009 Laxma Goud: Solo Exhibition, Aicon Gallery, London
2007 Laxma Goud 40 years: A Retrospective, Aicon Gallery, New York
2006 Sculptures, Bronze and Terra-cottas, Guild Art Gallery, Mumbai
2003 Aicon Gallery, New York
2001-02 Grey Art Gallery, New York

Select Group Exhibitions

2010 Black is Beautiful, India Fine Art, Mumbai
Essential, Eclectic,...Ephemeral, The Harrington Mansions, Calcutta
2009 Mark of Masters -2, Art and Soul, Mumbai
In Search of the Vernacular, Aicon Gallery, New York
Sacred and Secular, India Fine Art, Mumbai
Think Small, Art Alive Gallery, New Delhi
The Root of Everything, Gallery Mementos, Bangalore
Gallery Space, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh
2008 Summer collection, works by modern and contemporary south Asian artists,
Aicon Gallery, London
2007 From the Vault, Aicon Gallery, London and New York
2006 Back to the Future, Gallery Espace, New Delhi
1986 Indian Art Tomorrow, Philips Collection, Washington D.C.
1977 São Paulo Biennale, Brazil


MAQBOOL FIDA HUSAIN (1915 – 2011)

Born on September 17, 1915, in Pandharpur, Maharashtra, India.

Commonly known as M.F., Husain was an eminent Indian painter. Widely regarded as the “Picasso of India,” he is arguably the most recognizable figure of modern and contemporary Indian art, influencing a whole generation of artists in the country. A self-taught artist, Husain moved to Mumbai at an early age and began his artistic career by painting the billboards for cinemas. He recalled, “We were paid barely four or six annas per square foot. That is, for a 6x10 feet canvas, we earned a few rupees. And apart from the New Theatre distributor, the others did not pay us at all. As soon as I earned a little bit, I used to take off for Surat, Baroda and Ahmedabad to paint landscapes.”

Husain became associated with Indian modernism in the 1940s. A dashing, highly eccentric figure dressed in impeccably tailored suits, he went barefoot and brandished an extra-long paintbrush as a slim cane. He never maintained a studio, but he spread his canvases out on the floors of whatever hotel room he happened to be staying in, always paying for damages when he checked out. He created four museums to showcase his work, and had a collection of classic sports cars. Enormously prolific, a gifted self-promoter and hard bargainer, he claimed to have produced some 60,000 paintings. When questioned about such prolificacy by Michael Peschardt of the BBC in one of the last interviews he gave on May 27th 2011, he replied, “All this talk about inspiration and moment is nonsense. Excuse us”. He amassed a fortune, but maintained a bank balance of zero. He applied the formal lessons of European modernists like Cézanne and Matisse to scenes from national epics like the Mahabharata and Ramavana, to the Hindu pantheon.

His first exhibition took place in 1947 with his painting Sunhera Sansaar, shown at the annual exhibition of the Bombay Art Society, and Husain decided to stay in India during the Partition in 1947. Between 1948 and 1950, Husain's work caught the public eye in a series of exhibitions across India. Through the fifties and sixties, he traveled outside India, with his first foray into China in 1951. The following year, he had his first solo exhibition in Zurich, and so began a series of exhibitions across Europe and the United States. In 1966, the Government of India awarded him the Padmashree.

Over the following decades, Husain's fame spread and was glorified by what was deemed to be a rather controversial approach to his art. His Shwetambari exhibition at the Jehangir Art Gallery consisted of two halls shrouded in white cloth, whorls of which also shared the floor with torn newspapers. Later, he gave a public performance at the Tata Center in Calcutta. For several days, a crowd watched as he painted pictures of six goddesses. On the last day of the exhibition, he destroyed his paintings by over-painting them in white. Several of his paintings in the 1990s were named after the film actress Madhuri Dixit, perhaps displaying a childhood obsession originating from his time spent painting billboards. As reported in The Times of India, “The Padma Vibhushan awardee continues to paint events that are topmost on contemporary minds, be it the solar eclipse, the cricket mania or the victory at Kargil.”

Themes in Husain’s work often returned to his cultural roots, but he embraced diverse influences – from the cinematography of Buñuel, to themes that have blended folk, tribal and mythological figures – to create vibrantly contemporary, living art forms in his work.

Icons of Indian culture through the ages seek to capture the quintessence of his subjects, like Mother Teresa and Gandhi, to religious icons as Krishna and Saraswati. His narrative paintings, executed in a modified Cubist style, can be caustic and funny as well as serious and somber. His themes—usually treated in series—also include hallmarks of Indian culture and history, such as the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the British Empire, and motifs of Indian urban and rural life. One of the most celebrated and internationally recognized Indian artists of the 20th century, he also received recognition as a printmaker, photographer, and filmmaker.

Besides painting, he also made feature films, including Through the Eyes of a Painter (1966), which won the ‘Golden Bear Award’ at the Berlin Film Festival (1967), and was also awarded the ‘Gaja Gamini’ in 2000. The Government of India honored him with the ‘Padma Bhushan’ and the ‘Padma Vibhushan’ awards, both prestigious civilian awards. In 2007, Husain received Honorary Doctorates from Benaras Hindu University, Jamia Millia Islamia University, and Mysore University.

The artist passed away on June 9th 2011 in London, UK. However, his vast artistic legacy lives on around the world.

Education

2007 Honorary Doctorates from Benaras Hindu University, Jamia Millia Islamia
University, and Mysore University

Selected Solo Exhibitions

2010 M.F. Husain 2010 – The World is my Canvas, organized by Museum of Islamic Art
(MIA), Qatar Foundation and as part of 2010 Arab Capital of Culture
M.F. Husain: Early Masterpieces 1950s–70s, sponsored by the Year of India, the Cogut Center for the Humanities, and the David Winton Bell Gallery at David Winton Bell Gallery, Providence
2006 – 2007 Epic India: Paintings by M.F. Husain, Herwitz Collection of Contemporary Indian
Art, Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA
2006 Early Masterpieces 1950-70’s, Asia House Gallery, London
2005 Exhibition of Prints, Collector’s Paradise Gallery, Mumbai
2004 Husain (An Exhibition of Graphic Prints in Honor of M S Subbalakshmi), Lakshana
Museum of Fine Arts, Chennai
2004 National Gallery of Modern Art (NGMA), Mumbai
‘Husain: Graphic 2004, Pictures and Frames, Mumbai
2003 ’88 Husains in Oils 2003, Vadehra Art Gallery, New Delhi
Husain Hieroglyph, Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
M F Husain in Oils, Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
Thief of Baghdad, Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
Gallerie 88, Kolkata
2002 Paintings and Serigraphs by Husain, Sarjan Art Gallery, Baroda
M .F Husain, Limited Edition Graphics and Reproduction, Sakshi Gallery in
association with Archer Art Gallery, Ahmedabad
Madhuri as Saratchandra’s Chandramukhi: The Eternal Enchantress of
Devdas, Tao Art Gallery, Mumbai
2000 Paintings, Murals and Drawings, Husain Ki Sarai Collection, New Delhi
1998 Maqbool Fida Husain: The Beacon of Energy, The Window, Mumbai
Husain Now, Centre for International Modern Art (CIMA), Kolkata
1996 From Sinhasan to Peacock Throne to the Chair of the 21st Century: M. F
Husain and Jehangir Nagree Exhibition of Furniture, organized by The Living Room at Taj Mahal Hotel, Mumbai
Exhibition of Water Colors and Object Based Works’, Jehangir Art Gallery, Mumbai
Screening of Film ‘Gaja Gamini’, along with an exhibition of lithographs and
selected works, New Delhi
1995 Maqbool Fida Husain, Art Today, New Delhi
14 Serigraphs on Madhuri Dixit, Surya Gallery, Hyderabad
A Visual Script of ‘Untitled Film on Madhuri, Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
1994 Tapestry Show, Vadehra Art Gallery, New Delhi
Oils on Canvas, 31st Anniversary Exhibition, Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
1993 Let History Cut Across Me Without Me, organized by Vadehra Art Gallery,
New Delhi at National Gallery of Modern Art (NGMA), New Delhi
Civilization, Violence and Pather Panchali, at National Gallery of Modern Art (NGMA), New Delhi
1992 Six Days of Live Painting, Tata Centre, Kolkata
1991 Knight Watch, Vadehra Art Gallery, New Delhi
Shwetambari, Installation at Jehangir Art Gallery, Mumbai
Front Page, Centre for Contemporary art (CCA), New Delhi
1990 Theatre of the Absurd, Installations, New Delhi
1989 Calcutta 300, Vadehra Art Gallery, New Delhi
1988 Husain, Hunter Museum of Art, Tennessee, USA
1986 Images of the Raj, Sista’s Art Gallery, Bangalore
1983 Story of a Brush, Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
1982 Culture of the Streets, Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
1981 Culture of the Streets, Art Heritage, New Delhi
1981 Les Otages – Mere Theresa, Galerie Jourdan, Montreal, Canada
1980 Mother and Child: A Tribute to Mother Teresa, Calcutta Art Gallery, Kolkata
1979 Husain in Malaysia, The Hilton, Kuala Lumpur
1978 Ragmala Paintings, Centaur Hotel, Mumbai
Sufi Paintings, Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
Portrait of an Umbrella, Art Heritage, New Delhi
Retrospective, Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi
1975 Maqbool Fida Husain, Sarla Art Centre, Chennai
1974 Commonwealth Art Centre, London, UK
Moscow Museum of Oriental Art, Moscow
Paintings by Husain, Worcester Art Museum, USA
1973 Retrospective, Birla Academy of Art and Culture, Kolkata
Espace Cardin, Paris
1972 Paintings 1971, Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
1971 Ashoka Hotel, New Delhi
1969 21 Years of Painting, Jehangir Art Gallery, Mumbai
1968 Images of Kerala, Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
Six Days of Making: Movements and Moods in Paintings, Shridharani Gallery, New Delhi
1967 New York, Poland and Czechoslovakia
1966 Mumbai
Oberoi Hotel, New Delhi
1965 Drawings: The Arab Image, Gallery Chemould, Mumbai, Kolkata and New
Delhi; Gallery Waisty, Baghdad and Kabul
1964 Dhoomimal Art Gallery, New Delhi
1962 Ashoka Gallery, Kolkata
1962 Mumbai and New Delhi
1961 Ashoka Gallery, Kolkata
Gallery Chemould, Mumbai
1960 – 1961 Gallery Palse, Rome
Kunst Kabinet, curated by Hanna Bekker vom Rath, Frankfurt, Germany
1956 Gallery Palette, Zurich
Gallery Mannes, Prague
1950 Bombay Art Society, Mumbai

Selected Group Exhibitions

2011 Continuum, Delhi Art Gallery, New Delhi
Roots in the Air, Branches Below: Modern & Contemporary Art from India,
San Jose Museum of Art, CA
Time Unfolded, Kiran Nadar Museum of Art (KNMA), New Delhi
Celebrations 2011, Kumar Gallery, New Delhi
2010 – 2011 Figure/Landscape: Part Two, Aicon Gallery, London
Figure/Landscape: Part One, Aicon Gallery, New York
Who Has Seen Gandhi?, presented by Tangerine Art Space at Raj Bhavan; Kynkyny Art Gallery and Tangerine Art Space, Bangalore
The Modernists, RL Fine Arts, New York
The Progressives & Associates, Grosvenor Gallery, London
From Miniature to Modern: Traditions in Transition, Rob Dean Art, London in association with Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
Symbols and Metaphors, Centre of International Modern Art (CIMA), Kolkata
Masters of Maharashtra, collection from Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi at Piramal Gallery, National Center for the Performing Arts (NCPA), Mumbai
2010 Evolve: 10th Anniversary Show, Tao Art Gallery, Mumbai
Art Dubai 2010, presented by Aicon Gallery, New York
Manifestations IV, Delhi Art Gallery, New Delhi
Roots, 25th Anniversary Exhibition of Sakshi Gallery, Mumbai at The Park, Chennai
Celebration 2010, Kumar Art Gallery, New Delhi
2009 – 2010 Master Class, The Arts Trust, Mumbai
2009 Bharat Ratna: Jewels of Modern Indian Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
In Search of the Vernacular, Aicon Gallery, New York
Indian Harvest, presented by Crimson, The Art Resouce, Bangalore at S.G. Private Banking, Singapore
Long Gone & Living Now, Gallerie Mirchandani + Steinreucke, Mumbai
Kalpana: Figurative Art in India, presented by The Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) at Aicon Gallery, London
Progressive to Altermodern: 62 Years of Indian Modern Art, Grosvenor Gallery, London
Spirit of India, co-exhibition with S.H. Raza, Kings Road Galleries, London
Armory Show New York, presented by Vadehra Art Gallery, New Delhi
Ltd. Edition, Gallery Threshold, New Delhi
2008 – 2009 Signs Taken for Wonders: Recent Art from India and Pakistan, Aicon Gallery, London
Modern India, presented by Institut Valencià d'Art Modern (IVAM) and Casa
Asia, in collaboration with the Ministry of Culture at Valencia, Spain
Indian Highway, presented in Collaboration with Astrup Fearnley Museum of
Modern Art, Oslo at Serpentine Gallery, London; Herning Museum of Contemporary Art, Denmark
Paz Mandala, Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi
2008 Winter Moderns, Aicon Gallery, New York and London
Frame Figure Field: 20th Century Modern and Contemporary Indian Art, Delhi Art Gallery, New Delhi
Modern and Contemporary Indian Art, Vadehra Art Gallery, New Delhi
Multiple Modernities: India, 1905-2005, Philadelphia Museum of Art,
Freedom 2008 – Sixty Years of Indian Independence, Centre for International
Modern Art (CIMA), Kolkata
Tales, Reflection and Constructs, Galerie 88, Kolkata
Exhibition of Seri–Prints, Studio Vasant, New Delhi
Moderns, Royal Cultural Centre at Amman, Jordan; organized by Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi, with Embassy of India, Amman, Jordan
Harvest 2008, organized by Arushi Arts at The Stainless Gallery, New Delhi
2007 – 2008 From Everyday To The Imagined: Modern Indian Art, Museum of Art, Seoul
National University, Seoul
2007 Epic India: Paintings by M.F. Husain, Peabody Essex Museum,
Massachusetts, USA
From the Vault, Aicon Gallery, London and New York
Gateway Bombay, Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA
2006 Pictorial Glimpses, National Gallery of Modern Art (NGMA), Mumbai
Summer Show, Centre for International Modern Art (CIMA), Kolkata
M.F. Husain: Early Masterpieces 1950s-70s, Asia House, London
The Moderns Revisited, Grosvenor Vadehra, London
Shadow Lines, Vadehra Art Gallery, New Delhi
Making of Divinity, Sakshi Gallery, Mumbai
2005 Manifestations III, curated by Delhi Art Gallery at Nehru Center, Mumbai,
and Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi.
Drishti/Vision: Indian Contemporary Artists, Valentine Willie Fine Art, Kuala Lumpur
Evoking Rasa in Luminous Visions: Indian Art, Worcester Art Museum, Worcester
Ashta Nayak: Eight Pioneers of Indian Art, Aicon Gallery, New York
The Sacred Feminine, Shridharani Gallery, New Delhi
Still Life: The Inscrutable Genre, Art Motif, New Delhi
2004 20 / 20 – A Vision: Looking Back / Looking Forward, Apparao Galleries, Chennai
Ruminations, Taj Mahal Hotel, Mumbai; The Forum, New Delhi; Windsor Manor Hotel, Bangalore; Museum Gallery, Mumbai
Jiva / Life, Bodhi Art, Singapore
Portrait of a Decade, Jehangir Art Gallery, Mumbai
Manifestations II, curated by Delhi Art Gallery at Jehangir Art Gallery, Mumbai and Delhi Art Gallery, New Delhi.
Concept and Form, Vadehra Art Gallery, New Delhi
2003 Anniversary Master Strokes, Art Musings, Mumbai
Manifestations I, organized by Delhi Art Gallery at World Trade Center, Mumbai and Delhi Art Gallery, New Delhi.
2002 Art Musings 2002, Art Musings, Mumbai
Colors of India, organized by Birla Academy of Art and Culture, Kolkata at Mumbai
2001 Anniversary Return to Eden, Art Musings, Mumbai
Modern Indian Art, Metropolitan Pavilion, New York
Jubilant Gold: 50 Years of Artists, Artists’ Centre, Mumbai
2000 Distillations, Birla Academy of Art and Culture, Kolkata
Timeless Vision: Contemporary Art from the Herwitz Collection, Haggerty Museum of Art, Milwaukee, WI
New Works, The Fine Art Resource, Berlin
1998 Ruminations, Apollo Apparao Galleries, Mumbai
The Window, Mumbai
1997 Indian Painters Having Lives in France, Alliance Francaise, Pondicherry
The Indian Beast, Apparao Galleries, Chennai
Inaugural Exhibition, Art Indus, New Delhi
Tribute to Mother Teressa, Art Indus, New Delhi
The Keehn Collection: Important Paintings of Post Independence India, Bose Pacia, New York
Colors of Independence, National Gallery of Modern Art (NGMA), New Delhi
1996 Contemporary Indian Paintings: The Chester and Davida Herwitz
Collection, Pt. II, Sotheby’s Auction, New York
Modern and Contemporary Indian Paintings: One Hundred Years, Sotheby’s Auction, London
1995 River of Art, Art Today, New Delhi
Contemporary Indian Paintings: The Chester and Davida Herwitz Collection, Pt. I, Sotheby’s Auction, New York
Art India Now: Important Contemporary Artists, Bose Pacia, New York
Mithuna, 91C Jermyn Street, London
1994 Art Today, New Delhi
Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
1993 Reflection and Images, Mumbai
Wounds, Centre of International Modern Art (CIMA), Kolkata
1991 National Exposition of Contemporary Art, National Gallery of Modern Art
(NGMA), New Delhi
Husain, Husain and Husain, Egypt
Remembering Kali Pundole on its 28th Anniversary, Mumbai
State of Art, Jehangir Art Gallery, Mumbai
Nine Indian Contemporaries, Centre for Contemporary Art (CCA), New Delhi
1988 Festival of India, Takoka Municipal Museum of Art & Meugro Museum of
Art, Tokyo
1987 Indian Drawing Today, Mumbai
Festival of India, Russia
Coups de Couer, Halle de I’lle, Geneva
1986 Indian Art Tomorrow, The Phillips Collections, Washington D.C
Contemporary Indian Art, Grey Art Gallery, New York
1985 – 1986 Festival of India, Exhibition of Contemporary Indian Art, New York University, NY
Indian Art Today: 4 Artists, Washington D.C, USA
Contemporary Art in India, Worcester, USA
Bharat Bhavan Biennale, Bhopal
1985 100 Jahre Indische Malerei, Altes Museum, Berlin
Six Indian Painters, Tate Gallery, London
1982 Indische Kunst Heute, Kunsthalle Darmstadt
Contemporary Indian Art, Festival of India, Royal Academy of Arts, London
India: Myth and Reality, Aspects of Modern Indian Art, Oxford, UK
Modern Indian Paintings, Hirshhorn Museum, Washington, DC.
Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
1973 Gallery Chanakya, New Delhi
1972 A Painter Makes a Film, Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
1971 São Paulo Biennale, special invitee with Pablo Picasso, Brazil
1970 Art Today II, Ashoka Gallery, Kolkata and Shridharni Gallery, New Delhi
1969 Art Today I, New Delhi
1967 25 Years of Paintings seen in Bombay, Mumbai
1966 Commonwealth Art Exhibition, London
Art Now in India, London and Brussels
1964 Indian Paintings Now, London
1962 Asoka Art Gallery, Kolkata
1961 Gallery Chemould, Mumbai
1960 Tokyo Biennale, Japan
1959 São Paulo Biennale, Brazil
Tokyo Biennale, Japan
1958 Eight Painters, International Culture Centre, New Delhi
1955 National Exhibition, Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi
Venice Biennale, Italy
1953 Venice Biennale, Italy
1951 Salon de Mai, France
1950 Calcutta Group and Progressive Art Group, Kolkata
Bombay Art Society's Salon, Mumbai
1948 – 1956 Group Exhibitions with Progressive Art Group

Cinematography

2011 Pehla Sitara (Writer)
2008 Halla Bol (Thanks, as M.F. Husain)
2004 Meenaxi: Tale of 3 Cities (Director/Writer)
2003 Tehzeeb (Thanks, as M.F. Husain)
2000 Gaja Gamini (Director/Art Department/Writer/Actor)
Fiza (Thanks – as M.F. Husain)
1997 Mohabbat (Actor, as himself)
1991 Henna (Art Department/Paintings); tribute to Raj Kapoor
1967 Through the Eyes of a Painter (Director/Writer)

Awards and Honors

2007 Raja Ravi Varma Award, Government of Kerala
Honorary Doctorates, Benaras Hindu University (BHU), Varanasi
Honorary Doctorates, Jamia Millia Islamia University, New Delhi
Honorary Doctorates, Mysore University, Mysore
2004 Lalit Kala Ratna, Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi
1997 Aditya Vikram Birla ‘Kalashikkar’ Award for Lifetime Achievement
1991 Padma Vibhushan, Government of India
1973 Padma Bhushan, Government of India
1968 National Award for ‘Best Experimental Film’ Through the Eyes of a Painter, India
1967 Awarded ‘Golden Bear’ for film Through the Eyes of a Painter, International
Berlin Film Festival, Germany; purchased by Museum of Modern Art, NY
1966 Padma Shree, Government of India
1959 International Biennale Award, Tokyo
1955 Padma Shree, Government of India
First Prize at National Exhibition of Art, Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi
1947 Bombay Art Society, Mumbai

PARESH MAITY

Travels are a crucial part of Maity's life, and travels are the life of Maity's art. Every place he lands up at equips him with a new vocabulary. First came the watercolor drawings of the Bengal village that caught the momentary interplay of light and shade and brought simple everyday objects like a bicycle wheel to the forefront. Then came the landscapes, a tiny depiction of a rain swept paddy field to a wall sized evocation of a boat bobbing in the high seas. Soon Maity started breaking lines and redefining structures. These forms became more abstracted. From these abstractions, once again forms emerged but as a significantly restructured reality. Now he is back again to the landscapes that reflect his changing horizons. Maity has transcended the world of landscapes, "to keep pace with the changing times."

In tandem with these transitions in style, Maity has shown unusual keenness to master mediums as well. He shot into limelight for his creative use of volatile watercolors. He gave up conte for the vibrant reds and pitch-dark blacks. Soon Maity headed for oils and brought a riot of colors with yellows, crimsons and indigos.

Born in Bengal, Paresh graduated in Fine Arts from the Govt. College of Art & Craft, Calcutta and obtained his Master of Fine Arts from the Delhi College of Art, topping his class. Through the year he has won many prestigious awards. In a short span of ten years he has held over thirty solo shows and has participated in several prestigious art camps and group shows in India and abroad. He has won acclaim in Europe particularly in Germany, Switzerland, Hungary, France and the United Kingdom.

NALINI MALANI

Born 1946, Karachi

J.J. University, Bombay (1969)

Malani's work reflects a deep commitment to women's issues, particularly with regard to social and familial relationships in which women's skills often go unappreciated. Her charged human forms and sometimes cluttered pictorial space refer to various aspects of a woman's experience as well as the destruction and despair within cities and among nations.

Since 1993, Malani has diversified her art to include video installations. She has gained an international reputation for seeking to re-position the traditional content of Indian art within a contemporary media-based format. Malani's point of view has been unwaveringly urban and internationalist, and unsparing in its condemnation of those who cynically exploit the beliefs of the masses to fan the flames of nationalism.

The artist lives and works in Mumbai.

Solo Exhibitions

2010 Splitting the Other: Retrospective 1993-2009, Musée cantonal des Beaux-Arts, Lausanne, Switzerland
2009 The Govett- Brewster Art Gallery, New Plymouth, New Zealand
Cassandra, Galerie Lelong, Paris
2008 Listening to the Shades, Arario Gallery, New York
2007 Irish Museum Of Modern Art, Dublin, Ireland
Walsh Gallery,Chicago
2005-06 Exposing the Source: The Paintings of Nalini Malani, A retrospective exhibition, Peabody Essex Museum, Salem Ma, U.S.A.
2003 Stories Retold, Sakshi Gallery, Mumbai
2002/3 Hamletmachine, New Museum of Contemporary Art, New York
2002 Recent Video Art, Nalini Malani, Apeejay Media Gallery, New Delhi
2000 When Krishna Opened His Mouth, Gallery Chemould, Mumbai
The Sacred and the Profane, Sakshi Gallery, Mumbai
1999 Remembering Toba Tek Singh, Video Installation, Prince of Wales Museum, Mumbai
1996 Free Trade Ephemeral, site-specific work in a ship's container, Art Across The Oceans, Containers '96, Copenhagen, Denmark
1995 Bloodlines, works on canvas and paper; Artist's Laboratory Installation Gallery Chemould, Mumbai
1992 City of Desires, Gallery Chemould, Mumbai
1991-92 Hieroglyphs, Lohar Chawl and other works, Gallery Chemould and Jehangir Art Gallery, Mumbai, Sakshi Gallery, Bangalore and Chennai
1990 Under The Skin, Gallery 7, Mumbai
1980 Art Heritage, New Delhi

Selected Group Exhibitions

2010 Have I Opposed To You? New Art from India and Pakistan, Faye Fleming & Partner, Geneva
Masters of Maharashtra, collection from Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi at Piramal Gallery, National Centre for the Performing Arts (NCPA), Mumbai
2009 Indian Art After Independence: Selected Works from the Collections of Virginia & Ravi Akhoury and Shelley & Donald Rubin, Emile Lowe Gallery, Hempstead
MATER, Universidad de Jaén, Spain
Shifting Shapes, Unstable Signs, Yale School of Art, Connecticut, USA
2008 Everywhere Is War (and Rumors of War), Bodhi Art, Mumbai
Still Moving Image, Devi Art Foundation, Gurgaon, New Delhi
Excavations: Memory, Myth, Membrane, Art Musings, Mumbai
A Year in Drawing, Galerie Lelong - New York, New York, NY
2007 Horn Please: Narratives in Contemporary Indian Art, Kunstmuseum Bern, Switzerland
Frame/Grid/Room/Cell, Bodhi Art, Mumbai
Tiger by the Tail ! Women Artists of India Transforming Culture, (WSRC), Brandeis University, USA in partnership with Indian Council for Cultural Relations, New Delhi
2006 Cinema of Prayoga, Tate Modern, London.
2005 Edge of Desire, The Asia Society, New York
2004 Crossing Currents-video art and cultural identity, Lalit Kala Akademi Galleries, New Delhi
2003 Body .City, House of World Culture, Berlin
2001 Century City, Tate Modern
2000 Unpacking Europe, Museum Boymans Van Beuningen

AKBAR PADAMSEE

Born 1928 in Bombay (Mumbai), Maharashtra, India

Padamsee left for Paris in 1951 and lived and worked there until his return in 1967. He was associated with the Progressive Artists Group. Padamsee’s work ranges from figurative, to non-representational and abstract, making him an artist difficult to bracket. In fact for Padamsee, it not the bracketing which is of consequence, for his main pre-occupation is with the form, volume, space, time, & color. He is very conscious of every mark that he makes; the process of creation is one of contemplation and articulation of thoughts and ideas. His forms are on the surface both real and transcendent. They carry both an expression of effable sadness and a refined sense of grace. Although very meticulous in his method of working, the colors in Padamsee’s paintings pulsate with throbbing energy for he is truly a master colorist.

Through 1981, Padamsee participated in the International Triennales in India and the Biennales in San Paulo, Brazil, Tokyo and Venice. He founded the Vision Exchange Workshop for artists and filmmakers and has made several short films such as Syzgy in which he animated a short set of his geometric drawings. In 1991, Padamsee participated in the first computer art exhibition Mumbai, India.

The artist lives and works in Mumbai.

Education

1945 – 1949 Diploma in Fine Arts, Sir J.J. School of Arts, Mumbai

Select Solo Exhibitions

2010 Body Parts, The Loft, Mumbai
Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
2008 Sensitive Surfaces, Galerie Helene Lamarque, Paris
2006 Photographs, Guild Art Gallery, Mumbai
2005 Gallery Threshold and the French Embassy in India, Delhi
2004 Retrospective of Watercolors, Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
1997 Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
1994 Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
1993 Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
1992 Art Heritage, New Delhi
1986 Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
1980 Retrospective of works organized by Art Heritage Delhi and Mumbai
1975 Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
1974 Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
1972 Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
1967 Museum of Contemporary Art, Montreal
1960 Painting in Grey, Gallery ‘59, Mumbai
1957 Galerie Ventadour, France
1952 Galerie Saint Placide, Paris 1953,55 Venice Biennale, Italy

Select Group Exhibitions

2011 Masterclass, Dhoomimal Art Gallery, New Delhi
2010 – 2011 Figure/Landscape: Part Two, Aicon Gallery, London
2010 Masters of Maharashtra, collection from Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi at Piramal Gallery,
National Centre for the Performing Arts (NCPA), Mumbai
Black is Beautiful, India Fine Art, Mumbai
From Miniature to Modern: Traditions in Transition, Rob Dean Art, London in association with
Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
Black and White, Galerie Mirchandani + Steinruecke, Mumbai
The Progressives & Associates, Grosvenor Gallery, London
Figure/Landscape: Part One, Aicon Gallery, New York
2009 Bharat Ratna! Jewels of Modern Indian Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Indian Art After Independence: Selected Works from the Collections of Virginia & Ravi Akhoury and Shelley & Donald Rubin, Emile Lowe Gallery, Hempstead
Sacred and Secular, India Fine Art, Mumbai
Think Small, Art Alive Gallery, New Delhi
Progressive to Altermodern: 62 Years of Indian Modern Art, Grosvenor Gallery, London
2008 Faces, Tao Art Gallery, Mumbai
Freedom 2008 – Sixty Years of Indian Independence, Centre for International Modern Art (CIMA), Kolkata
2007 – 2008 India Art Now: Between Continuity and Transformation, Province of Milan, Milan, Italy
Winter Show, Aicon Gallery, Palo Alto
2006 CIMA Gallery, Kolkata
2005 Threshold Art Gallery, New Delhi
Contemporary Indian Art, Nehru Center, London
2004 Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
Critical Boundaries, Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
2001 – 2002 Saffronart and Pundole Art Gallery in New York
1993 Sakshi Gallery, Bangalore & Madras
1992 Sanskriti Art Gallery, Kolkata
1991 National Exposition of Contemporary Art, National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi
1987 Festival of India, Moscow, USSR

Awards and Honors

2010 Padama Bhushan, Government of India
Kailash Lalit Kala Award, New Delhi
2008 Roopdhar, Bombay Art Society, Mumbai
2007 Dayawati Modi Award
2004 Lalit Kala Ratna, Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi
1998 Bank of India Excellence Award
1997 98 Kalidas Samman
1969 – 1970 Jawaharlal Nehru Fellowship
1967 Artist in Residence, Stout State University, Wisconsin
1965 . D. Rockefeller III Fund Fellowship, U.S.A

Collections

Ministry of Cultural and Scientific Affairs, New Delhi
National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi
Jehangir Nicholson Museum Mumbai
Art Heritage, New Delhi. Deutsche Bank, Mumbai
Glenbarra Art Museum Hemeji
Pheroza and Jamshyd Godrej Collection
Ajay Lakhanpal Collection, Mumbai
Solang Padmsee Family Collection, Paris
Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
Ursula Volmer-Hoffmann Collection, Germany

JAMINI ROY

Born 1887, West Bengal
Died 1972

Diploma in Fine Arts, Government School of Arts and Craft (1903-08)

Born in 1887 in a small village in Bankura district, West Bengal, Jamini Roy joined the Government School of Art, Kolkata in 1903. He began his career by painting in the Post-Impressionist genre of landscapes and portraits, very much in keeping with his training in a British academic system. Yet, by 1925, Roy had begun experimenting along the lines of popular bazaar paintings sold outside the Kalighat temple in Kolkata. By the early 1930s, Roy made a complete switch to indigenous materials to paint on woven mats, cloth and wood coated with lime. The inspiration for painting on woven mats was the textures he found in Byzantine art, which he had seen in color photographs. It occurred to him that painting on a woven mat might make for an interesting mosaic-like surface.
The Santhals, a tribal people who live in the rural districts of Bengal, were an important subject for Roy. A series of works done a decade before World War II is a very good example of how he captured the qualities that are a part of native folk painting and recombined them with those of his own. He fused the minimal brush strokes of the Kalighat style with elements of tribal art from Bengal (like that of the terracotta work found in the Bishnupur temple in Bengal, where terracotta was often composed into decorative units - some elaborate in design - over portals and across exterior walls of the temples).
Roy's rejection of the then modern style of painting and his foray into the realm of Bengali folk paintings marked a new beginning in the history of Indian modern art. The mother and child, Radha, and animals were painted in simple two-dimensional forms, with flat color application and an emphasis on the lines. The main subjects were often enclosed within decorative borders with motifs in the background. The figure of the Christ was also a subject that Roy often painted.
Roy held several one-man exhibitions and numerous group shows. His works can be found in several private and public collections, institutions and museums all over the world, including the Lalit Kala Academy in Delhi and museums in Germany and the United States of America. He was honored with the Padma Bhushan in 1955. Jamini Roy died in 1972 in Kolkata, where he had lived all his life.

Selected Posthumous Exhibitions

2010 Manifestations IV, Delhi Art Gallery, New Delhi
Celebration 2010, Annual Exhibition, Kumar Art Gallery, New Delhi

2009 Indian Art After Independence: Selected Works from the Collections of Virginia & Ravi Akhoury and Shelley & Donald Rubin, Emily Lowe Gallery, Hempstead
In Search of the Vernacular, Aicon Gallery, New York
Kalpana: Figurative Art in India, presented by The Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) at Aicon Gallery, London; The Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR)
Moderns and More, Aicon Gallery, Palo Alto
2008 Multiple Modernities: India, 1905-2005, Philadelphia Museum of Art, USA
Post Independence Masters, Aicon Gallery, New York
2005 Manifestations III – 100 Artists of Contemporary Art, organized by Delhi Art Gallery at Nehru Centre, Mumbai, Lalit Kala Akademi, Rabindra Bhavan, New Delhi and Delhi Art Gallery, New Delhi
2004 Manifestations II – 100 Artists of Contemporary Art, organized by Delhi Art Gallery at Jehangir Art Gallery, Mumbai and Delhi Art Gallery, New Delhi
2003 Manifestations I – Indian Art in the 20th Century, organized by Delhi Art Gallery at World Trade Centre, Mumbai and Delhi Art Gallery, New Delhi
Exhibition of Works of Jamini Roy, Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi
Poetry and Patriotic Fervor, Delhi Art Gallery, New Delhi
Indian Art Pre-Independence, Delhi Art Gallery, New Delhi
2000 Face Off 1900-1980s. An Exhibition of Indian Old Masters and Moderns, Delhi Art Gallery, New Delhi
Art of Bengal : Past and Present 1850-2000, Centre for International Modern Art (CIMA), Kolkata
1998 Temperas and Sketches, Art Bazar, Kolkata
1998 The Simplicity of a Pionee', The Window, Mumbai
1997 Art of Bengal 1850-1950 : Calcutta Metropolitan Festival of Art, Birla Academy of Art and Culture, Kolkata
1995 From Seeds to Flowers – Jamini Roy and His Roots, Romain Rolland Galerie, Alliance Francaise, New Delhi
1990 Centenary Exhibition, Cymroza Art Gallery, Mumbai
1987 Centenary Exhibition, National Gallery of Modern Art (NGMA), New Delhi
Centenary Exhibition, Birla Academy of Art and Culture, Kolkata

Select Group Exhibitions

1998 The Window, Mumbai
1987 Centenary Exhibtion, NGMA
1938 British Indian Street, Calcutta
1937 Samavaya Mansions, Calcutta

Awards & Honors

1967 Awarded honorary D. Litt., Rabindra Bharati University, Kolkata
1956 Elected Fellow, Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi
1955 Awarded Padma Bhushan, Government of India
1935 Awarded Viceroys Gold Medal for 'Mother Helping the Child to Cross the Pool.'

FRANCIS NEWTON SOUZA (1924 – 2002)

Born 1924 in Saligaon, Goa, India

As one of the original founders of the Progressive Artists' Group in 1947 – along with M.F. Husain, Raza, Ara and others – F. N. Souza led the edge of the Indian modernist art movement. He is widely recognized as a leading modernist, and was the only Indian artist to be included in Tate Modern’s group exhibition on 20th Century Modernism in 2002.

Souza’s works have reflected the influence of various facets of art: the folk art of his native Goa, the full-blooded paintings of the Renaissance, the religious fervor of the Catholic Church, the landscapes of 18th and 19th century Europe, along with the distinctive work of the Cubists. A recurrent theme in his work is the dichotomy of male/female relationships, with his emphasis upon the related conflicts, friction and sexual tensions. In his drawings, he used line with economy, while still able to capture fine detail in his forms; he also favored a profusion of crosshatched strokes that compose the overall structure of his subject and style.

An iconoclast known for his powerful and provocative imagery, F. N. Souza’s unrestrained and graphic style created much controversy in his life and work. His repertoire of subjects covers still life, landscape, nudes and icons of Christianity, boldly rendered in a frenzied distortion of form. Souza's paintings express defiance and impatience with convention and the banality of everyday life.

In 1942, Souza was expelled from the J.J. School of Art for partaking in the ‘Quit India’ movement. He left for London in 1949, making his mark on the European art scene and rose to fame with his 1955 solo show at Gallery One, London – the same year his autobiographical essay Nirvana of a Maggot was published. In 1967, he migrated to New York where he received the Guggenheim International Award.

Died 2002 in Mumbai (Bombay), India

Education

1940 – 1945 Diploma in Painting, Sir J.J. School of Art, Mumbai
1960 Study Tour of Italy, Italian Government Scholarship

Select Solo and Group Exhibitions – Posthumous

2011 Natural Bodies, Subverted Canons, Vadehra Art Gallery, New Delhi
Goddess, Lion, Peasant, Priest: Modern and Contemporary Indian Art, from the
Collection of Shelley and Donald Rubin at Museum Oglethorpe, Atlanta
High-Light, presented by Sakshi Gallery, Mumbai at the Oberoi, Gurgaon
Manifestations V, Delhi Art Gallery, New Delhi
Masterclass, Dhoomimal Art Gallery, New Delhi
Time Unfolded, Kiran Nadar Museum of Art, New Delhi
Roots in the Air, Branches Below: Modern & Contemporary Art from India, San Jose
Museum of Art, San Jose
Continuum, Delhi Art Gallery, New Delhi
Celebrations 2011, Kumar Gallery, New Delhi
2010 – 2011 Figure/Landscape: Part Two, Aicon Gallery, London
2010 Figure/Landscape: Part One, Aicon Gallery, New York
The Modernists, RL Fine Arts, New York
Paper Trails, Vadehra Art Gallery, New Delhi
A Missing History: 'The Other Story' Re-visited, Aicon Gallery, London
The Progressives & Associates, Grosvenor Gallery, London
A. SYCO, The Viewing Room, Mumbai
From Miniature to Modern: Traditions in Transition, Rob Dean Art, London in
association with Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
Volte-Face: Souza's Iconoclastic Vision, presented by Dhoomimal Gallery at Lalit
Kala Akademi, New Delhi
Cross Purposes, Mascalls Gallery, West Kent; Ben Uri Museum, London
Vahana, Bombay Art Gallery, Mumbai
Manifestations IV, Delhi Art Gallery, New Delhi
Roots, 25th Anniversary Exhibition of Sakshi Art Gallery, Mumbai at the Park,
Chennai
Celebration 2010, Annual Exhibition, Kumar Art Gallery, New Delhi
2009 Master Class, The Arts Trust, Mumbai
Anglo-Indian Express, Grosvenor Gallery, London
Bharat Ratna! Jewels of Modern Indian Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Indian Art After Independence: Selected Works from the Collections of Virginia &
Ravi Akhoury and Shelley & Donald Rubin, Emily Lowe Gallery, Hempstead
F.N.Souza: Heads, Landscapes and Nudes, Grosvenor Gallery, London
In Search of the Vernacular, Aicon Gallery, New York
Progressive to Altermodern: 62 Years of Indian Modern Art, Grosvenor Gallery,
London
Kalpana: Figurative Art in India, presented by The Indian Council for Cultural
Relations (ICCR) at Aicon Gallery, London; The Indian Council for Cultural
Relations (ICCR)
Tracing Time, Bodhi Art, Mumbai
Armory Show, New York presented by Vadehra Art Gallery, New Delhi
Modern India, organized by Institut Valencià d'Art Modern (IVAM) and Casa Asia,
Ministry of Culture at Valencia, Spain
Expanding Horizons: Contemporary Indian Art, Traveling Exhibition presented by
2008 Frame Figure Field: 20th Century Modern and Contemporary Indian Art, Delhi Art
Gallery, New Delhi
3 Masters Briefly, Akar Prakar, Kolkata
F.N.Souza, presented by Saffronart and Grosvenor Gallery, London at Saffronart,
New York
Modern and Contemporary Indian Art, Vadehra Art Gallery, New Delhi
Multiple Modernities: India, 1905-2005, Philadelphia Museum of Art, USA
Freedom 2008: Sixty Years After Indian Independence, Centre for International
Modern Art (CIMA), Kolkata
Tales, Reflection and Constructs, ITC Windsor, Bangalore
Summer collection, works by modern and contemporary south Asian artists, Aicon Gallery, London
Winter Moderns, M.F. Husain, F.N., Souza, Shyamal Dutta Ray, Satish Gujral and
Prabha, Aicon Gallery, New York
The Ghost of Souza, Aicon Gallery, New York
2007 From the Vault, Aicon Gallery, London and New York
Bacon, Freud, Mehta, Souza, Grosvenor Vadehra, New Delhi
2005-6 F. N. Souza, Religion & Erotica, Tate Britain, London
Self-Portrait, Renaissance to contemporary, National Portrait Gallery, London
2005 Francis Newton Souza, Saffronart and Grosvenor Gallery, London/New York
Ashta Nayak: Eight Pioneers of Indian Art, Gallery ArtsIndia, New York
Modern Indian Paintings, Grosvenor Gallery, London
A Tribute to F. N. SOUZA, Kumar Gallery, New Delhi /Manifestations III, Nehru Centre, Mumbai; Rabindra Bhavan, New Delhi, and Delhi Art Gallery, New Delhi
2004 Manifestations II, Jehangir Gallery and the Delhi Art Gallery
Ethos: Contemporary Indian Art, Indigo Blue Art, Singapore
Souza in London, curated by Yashodhara Dalmia from the Bhayana family collection,
British Council, New Delhi
2003 Modern Indian Painting’, Grosvenor Gallery London
Francis Newton Souza: Works on paper, Saffronart, Mumbai
F.N Souza: A Definitive Retrospective, Gallery Artsindia, New York
Manifestations, Delhi Art Gallery
2002 Souza and Friends, Grosvenor Gallery, London,.
Souza in Bombay and Goa, Art Musings Gallery, Mumbai
2001 Souza: A Modern Myth, Gallery 88, Calcutta

Select Solo Exhibitions

2001 Francis Newton Souza Rare Works: 1965-2001, Galerie 88, Kolkata
1999 Copeland Fine Art Gallery, Columbus, Ohio, USA
1998 Bose Pacia Modern, New York
1997 Souza: A Retrospective, Julian Hartnolls Gallery, London
1996 Art Heritage, NEw Delhi
Souza from the Alkazi Collection, Academy of Fine Arts and Literature New Delhi
The Acrylics of Souza, L.T.G. Art Gallery, New Delhi
1995 The Chemicals of Souza, L. T.G. Art Gallery, New Delhi
1993 Souza, 1940s-1990s, Dhoomimal Art Gallery, New Delhi
1983 Souza in the Forties, Dhoomimal Art Gallery, New Delhi
1985 Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
1976 Dhoomimal Art Gallery,New Delhi
1975 76 Arts 38, London.
1968 London Arts Gallery Detroit, USA.
1966 Dhoomimal Art Gallery, New Delhi
1966 Grosvenor Gallery, London
1963 Taj Gallery Mumbai.
1962 Kumar Gallery, New Delhi.
1961 Gallery One, London
62 North Audley Street London.
1960 Gallery One, London
1959 Gallery One, London
1957 Gallery One, London
1955 Gallery One, London.
1954 Institute of Contemporary Arts, London
Gallery Creuze,London
1951 Indian Embassy, London

Select Group Exhibitions

2001 Souza & Baiju, Saffronart and Apparao Galleries, Mumbai
1996 National Gallery of Modern Art, Mumbai
1987 Coups de Coeur, Halles de L’Ile, Geneva
1986 Dhoomimal Art Gallery, New Delhi
1985 East-West Visual Arts Encounter, Bombay
1982 Modern Indian Paintings, Hirschorn Museum & Sculpture Garden Washington D.C.
India: Myth and Reality, Museum of Modern Art, Oxford, UK
Contemporary Indian Art, Royal Academy, London
1977 Commonwealth Artists of Fame, London
1972 Minneapolis International Art Festival, USA
1968 Tate Gallery, London
1967 Guggenheim Foundation USA
1965 Art Now in India, Arts Council of Great Britain, London
1964 Grosvenor Gallery, 1964
1962 Commonwealth Institute, London
1961 Museum of Modern Art, Sao Paulo/Rio de Janeiro
1958 Guggenheim Museum, USA
Whitechapel Art Gallery, London
1957 John Moore's Exhibition, Walker Art Gallery Liverpool
1956,57,59,60 Gallery One, London
1954 Venice Biennale Italy
Institute of Contemporary Arts, London
1949 Bombay Art Society Salon, Mumbai
1948 Progressive Artists’ Group, inaugural exhibition

Awards

1960 Italian Government Scholarship (through the British Council)
1967 Guggenheim International Award, New York
1957 John Moores Prize, Liverpool

Public Collections

National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi
Baroda Museum, Baroda
National Gallery of Modern Art, Mumbai
CIMA – Centre International Modern Art, Calcutta
Delhi Art Gallery, New Delhi
Tate, London, UK
Glenbarra Museum, Himeji, Japan