Born 1915, Pandharpur, Maharashtra, India
Lives and works between Dubai and London.


M. F. Husain is the most recognised figure of modern and contemporary Indian art; he joined the Progressives Artists Group in 1948. A self-taught artist, Husain moved to Mumbai at an early age and began his artistic career by painting the billboards for cinemas. He recalls, "We were paid barely four or six annas per square foot. That is, for a 6x10 feet canvas, we earned a few rupees. And apart from the New Theatre distributor, the others did not pay us at all. As soon as I earned a little bit I used to take off for Surat, Baroda and Ahmedabad to paint landscapes".

His first exhibition took place in 1947 with his painting Sunhera Sansaar, shown at the annual exhibition of the Bombay Art Society and Husain decided to stay in India during the Partition in 1947. Between 1948 – 1950, Husain's work caught the public eye in a series of exhibitions across India and through the fifties and sixties, he traveled outside India, with his first foray into China in 1951. The following year he had his first solo exhibition in Zurich and so began a series of exhibitions across Europe and the United States. In 1966, the Government of India awarded him the Padmashree.

Over the following decades, Husain's fame spread and was glorified by what was deemed to be a rather controversial approach to his art. His Shwetambari exhibition at the Jehangir Art Gallery consisted of two halls shrouded in white cloth, whorls of which also shared the floor with torn newspapers. Later, he gave a public performance at the Tata Center in Calcutta. For several days a crowd watched as he painted pictures of six goddesses. On the last day of the exhibition he destroyed his paintings by overpainting them in white. Several of his paintings in the nineties were named after the film actress Madhuri Dixit, perhaps displaying a childhood obsession that goes back to the time of painting billboards. As reported in the Times of India, "the Padma Vibhushan awardee continues to paint events that are topmost on contemporary minds, be it the solar eclipse, the cricket mania or the victory at Kargil".

Themes in Husain's work have repeatedly returned to his cultural roots, but he has embraced diverse influences, be that the cinematography of Buñuel to themes that have blended folk, tribal and mythological figures to create vibrantly contemporary, living art forms in his work. Icons of Indian culture through the ages seek to capture the quintessence of his subjects, like Mother Teresa, Krishna and the goddess Saraswati. Besides painting, he has also made feature films, including "Through the Eyes of a Painter" in 1966, which won the Golden Bear Award winner at the Berlin Film Festival (1967), and "Gaja Gamini" in 2000. The Government of India honoured him with the Padma Bhushan and the Padma Vibhushan awards, both prestigious civilian awards.

Select Solo and Group Exhibitions

2008 Winter Moderns, an exhibit of five senior modern Indian artists - M.F. Husain,
F.N. Souza, Shyamal Dutta Ray Satish Gujral and B. Prabha, Aicon Gallery,
New York
2008 Winter Moderns, exhibit of senior Indian modern masters, Aicon gallery,
2007 From the Vault, Aicon Gallery, London and New York
Epic India: Paintings by M F Husain, Peabody Essex Museum, Massachusetts, USA
2006 M F Husain: Early Masterpieces 1950s-70s, Asia House, London, UK
The Moderns Revisited, Grosvenor Vadehra, London, UK
2005 Ashta Nayak: Eight Pioneers of Indian Art, Gallery ArtsIndia, New York
2000 New Works, The Fine Art Resource, Berlin
1995 Inaugural Exhibition; River of Art, Art Today, New Delhi
1991 National Exposition of Contemporary Art, National Gallery of Modern Art, Mumbai
1988 Takoka Municipal Museum of Art & Meugro Museum of Art, Tokyo, Japan
1987 Coups de Coeur, Halles de I'lle, Geneva, Switzerland
1986 Indian Art Today, The Philips Collection, Washington D.C.
Contemporary Indian Art, Grey Art Gallery, New York.
1986 Sista's Art Gallery, Kala Yatra, Bangalore
1985 100 Jahre Indische Malerei, Altes Museum, Berlin
1982 Modern Indian Painting, Hirshhorn Museum, Washington,DC.
Contemporary Indian Art, Festival of India, Royal Academy of Art, London
India: Myth and Reality: Aspect of Contemporary Indian Art, Museum of Modern Art, Oxford, UK
Six Indian Painters, Tate Gallery, London
Indische Kunst Heute, Kunsthalle Darmstadt
1973 Retrospective Exhibition, Birla Academy of Art and Culture, Calcutta
1971 São Paulo Biennale, Brazil
1970 Art Today -II, Asoka Art Gallery, Calcutta
1969 21 Years of Painting , Jehangir Art Gallery, Mumbai
1966 Art Now in India, Newcastle, England and Ghent, Belgium
Commonwealth Art Exhibition, London
Oberoi International Hotel, New Delhi
1965 Exhibitions in Baghdad and Kabul
1960 Tokyo Biennale, Japan
Frankfurter Kunstkabinett, organized by Hanna Bekker vom Rath
Exhibition in Rome
1959 São Paulo Biennale, Brazil. Also 1971 as special invitee together with Pablo Picasso
1958 Eight Painters, International Culture Centre, New Delhi
1956 Zurich and Prague
1955 National Exhibition, Rabindra Bhavan, Lalit Kala Akademi
Venice Biennale, Italy
1953 Indische Kunst, Rautenstrauch- Joest –Museum, Cologne
Venice Biennale, Italy
1952 Zurich
1951 Salon de Mai, Paris
1950 Bombay Art Society's Salon, Bombay
1948–56 Group Exhibitions with PAG (Progressive Artists Group)
2004 Meenaxi: Tale of 3 Cities (Director and Writer)
2000 Gaja Gamini (Director, Writer, Actor)

Fiza (Thanks, as M F Husain)

1997 Mohabbat (Actor, as Himself)
1991 Henna (Art Department/Paintings: a tribute to Raj Kapoor, depicting "Henna" in line and color)
1966 Through the Eyes of a Painter (Director and Writer)


2004 Lalit Kala Ratna, Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi

1967 Awarded the Golden Berlin Bear for short film 'Through the Eyes of a Painter' (produced 1966),
Berlin International Film Festival, Germany

1966 Awarded Padma Shree and Padma Bhushan, Govt. of India.

Husain has received Honorary Doctorates from the following:
Benaras Hindu University
Jamia Millia Islamia
Mysore University


Born 1887, West Bengal
Died 1972

Diploma in Fine Arts, Government School of Arts and Craft (1903-08)

Born in 1887 in a small village in Bankura district, West Bengal, Jamini Roy joined the Government School of Art, Kolkata in 1903. He began his career by painting in the Post-Impressionist genre of landscapes and portraits, very much in keeping with his training in a British academic system. Yet, by 1925, Roy had begun experimenting along the lines of popular bazaar paintings sold outside the Kalighat temple in Kolkata. By the early 1930s, Roy made a complete switch to indigenous materials to paint on woven mats, cloth and wood coated with lime. The inspiration for painting on woven mats was the textures he found in Byzantine art, which he had seen in color photographs. It occurred to him that painting on a woven mat might make for an interesting mosaic-like surface.
The Santhals, a tribal people who live in the rural districts of Bengal, were an important subject for Roy. A series of works done a decade before World War II is a very good example of how he captured the qualities that are a part of native folk painting and recombined them with those of his own. He fused the minimal brush strokes of the Kalighat style with elements of tribal art from Bengal (like that of the terracotta work found in the Bishnupur temple in Bengal, where terracotta was often composed into decorative units - some elaborate in design - over portals and across exterior walls of the temples).
Roy's rejection of the then modern style of painting and his foray into the realm of Bengali folk paintings marked a new beginning in the history of Indian modern art. The mother and child, Radha, and animals were painted in simple two-dimensional forms, with flat color application and an emphasis on the lines. The main subjects were often enclosed within decorative borders with motifs in the background. The figure of the Christ was also a subject that Roy often painted.
Roy held several one-man exhibitions and numerous group shows. His works can be found in several private and public collections, institutions and museums all over the world, including the Lalit Kala Academy in Delhi and museums in Germany and the United States of America. He was honored with the Padma Bhushan in 1955. Jamini Roy died in 1972 in Kolkata, where he had lived all his life.

Selected Posthumous Exhibitions

2005 Manifestations III – 100 Artists of Contemporary Art, organized by Delhi Art Gallery at Nehru
Centre, Mumbai, Lalit Kala Akademi, Rabindra Bhavan, New Delhi and Delhi Art Gallery, New
2004 Manifestations II – 100 Artists of Contemporary Art, organized by Delhi Art Gallery at Jehangir
Art Gallery, Mumbai and Delhi Art Gallery, New Delhi
2003 Manifestations I – Indian Art in the 20th Century, organized by Delhi Art Gallery at World Trade
Centre, Mumbai and Delhi Art Gallery, New Delhi
2003 Exhibition of Works of Jamini Roy, Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi
2003 Poetry and Patriotic Fervor, Delhi Art Gallery, New Delhi
2003 Indian Art Pre-Independence, Delhi Art Gallery, New Delhi
2000 Face Off 1900-1980s. An Exhibition of Indian Old Masters and Moderns, Delhi Art Gallery, New
2000 Art of Bengal : Past and Present 1850-2000, Centre for International Modern Art (CIMA),
1997 Art of Bengal 1850-1950 : Calcutta Metropolitan Festival of Art, Birla Academy of Art and
Culture, Kolkata
1998 Temperas and Sketches, Art Bazar, Kolkata
1998 The Simplicity of a Pionee', The Window, Mumbai
1995 From Seeds to Flowers – Jamini Roy and His Roots, Romain Rolland Galerie, Alliance
Francaise, New Delhi
1990 Centenary Exhibition, Cymroza Art Gallery, Mumbai
1987 Centenary Exhibition, National Gallery of Modern Art (NGMA), New Delhi
1987 Centenary Exhibition, Birla Academy of Art and Culture, Kolkata

Select Group Exhibitions

1998 The Window, Mumbai
1987 Centenary Exhibtion, NGMA
1938 British Indian Street, Calcutta
1937 Samavaya Mansions, Calcutta

Awards & Honors

1967 Awarded honorary D. Litt., Rabindra Bharati University, Kolkata
1956 Elected Fellow, Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi
1955 Awarded Padma Bhushan, Government of India
1935 Awarded Viceroys Gold Medal for 'Mother Helping the Child to Cross the Pool'.b


Born 1940, Kolkata, India
Died 2006.

B.A. (Painting), Indian College of Art and Draftsmanship, Kolkata (1963)

Selected Posthumous Exhibitions

2008 Freedom 2008 – Sixty Years after Indian Independence, Centre for International Modern Art
(CIMA), Kolkata

Selected Solo Exhibitions

2000 Bikash 2000, Centre of International Modern Art (CIMA), Kolkata
1998 Reflections, Gallerie 88, Kolkata
Park Hotel, New Delhi
1997 Birla Academy of Art and Culture, Mumbai
1994 Recent Works, Jehangir Art Gallery, Mumbai
1993 Gallerie 88, Kolkata
Oberoi Hotel, New Delhi
1992 Tai Art Gallery, Mumbai
1991 Homage, Victoria memorial, Kolkata
Kal Yatra, Bangalore
1990 The Boy, Gallerie 88, Kolkata
Durga II, Birla Academy of Art and Culture, Kolkata
1989 Sabari, Gallerie 88, Kolkata
Durga, Birla Academy of Art and Culture, Kolkata
Jehangir Art Gallery, Mumbai
1987 Environs, Birla Academy of Art and Culture, Kolkata
Environs, Jehangir Art Gallery, Mumbai
Oils by Bikash, Taj Hotel, Mumbai
1986 She, Taj Art Gallery, Mumbai
She, Chitrakoot Art Gallery, Kolkata
1984 Jehangir Art Gallery, Mumbai
1982 Calcutta Art Gallery, Kolkata
Gallery Chemould, Mumbai
1977 Dhoomimal Art Gallery, New Delhi
1976 Gallery Chemould, Mumbai
1974 Gallery Chemould, Mumbai
1973 United States Information Centre, Kolkata
1971 Doll Series, Birla Academy of Art and Culture, Kolkata and Kunika Chemould, New Delhi
1965 Artistry House, Kolkata
Tata Iron & Steel Company, Jamshedpur

Selected Group Exhibitions
1998 Multimedia, Centre of International Modern Art (CIMA), Kolkata
1997 Colors of Independence, National Gallery of Modern Art (NGMA), New Delhi
1996 Chamatkara, Whiteley's Gallery, London, UK
1995 Fantasy, Centre of International Modern Art (CIMA), Kolkata
1994 Contemporary Miniatures, Centre of International Modern Art (CIMA), Kolkata
Group exhibition, All India Fine Arts and Crafts Society (AIFACS), New Delhi
1993 Wounds, National Gallery of Modern Art (NGMA), New Delhi and Kolkata
Trends and Images, Centre of International Modern Art (CIMA), Kolkata
1986 Visions, Birla Academy of Art and Culture, Kolkata
1985 East -West Visual Encounter, Mumbai
Grey Art Gallery, New York
1984 Retrospective, Mumbai
1982 Contemporary Indian Art, Festival of India, Royal Academy of Arts, Kolkata
India : Myth and Reality, Museum of Modern Art, Oxford; Hirshhorn Museum, Washington DC
Seven Contemporary Artists, Birla Academy of Art and Culture, Kolkata
Exhibition of Contemporary Indian Art, Germany
1981 Indian paintings Today, Mumbai
Four Contemporary Artists of West Bengal, Kolkata
1980 Miniature Forma', Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi
1978 Pictorial Space, Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi
1976 All India Drawing Exhibition
1975 All India Drawing Exhibition
1972 25 Years of Indian art, Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi
Exhibition in Yugoslavia, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary
1970 Exhibition in Yugoslavia, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary


1986 Festival of India, New York, Boston, Geneva, Moscow
1982 V International Triennale, New Delhi
1975 III International Triennale, New Delhi
1971 II International Triennale, New Delhi
1968 I Interantional Triennale, New Delhi


National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi
Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi
Ministry of Education, New Delhi
Chandigarh University Museum, Chandigarh
Bharat Bhavan, Bhopal
Represented in several public and private collections in India and abroad

Honors & Awards
2006 D.Litt, Kalyani Univeristy, West Bengal
2004 Fellowship, Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi
Life Time Achievement Award, Doordarshan, Kolkata
1990 Nivedita Purashkar, Ramkrishna Vivekananda Ashram
1989 Shiromani Purashkar
1988 Padmashree
1987 Banga Ratna
1972 Birla Academy of Art and Culture, Calcutta
National Award, Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi
1971 National Award, Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi
1962 Academy of Fine Arts Award, Calcutta


Born 1871, in Jorasanko, India.

Educated at Sanskrit College, Kolkata.
He never received formal training as a painter. However, he did get some training from the painters Signior Chilardi and Charles Palmer.

In 1895, Abanindranath turned to Indian traditional art and experimented with the Rajput style of painting. In 1905, he came into contact with Japanese artists Tikan and Hesida and learned the details of the Japanese watercolor techniques especially the wash method. He also laid the foundation for the Bengal school of Indian painting, where he led the revivalist movement in the field of modern Indian paintings with the help of a band of disciples - A K Haldar, K N Majumdar, S N Gupta and a host of others. He viewed art as work being strung together on a sustained level and continuously. His work was a blend of traditionalism and innovation. This was more so because, at this point the art scene in India was still defining its identity. He compared nature in its transient form and produced images that were part object, part sensuous, both transposed into each other. His vision on nature was always poetic, as was his personal form of expression. When art was replete with romanticism Abanindranath established his anti-idealistic stance by declaring that, "If art could realize perfect beauty the whole show would have ended long ago." Abanindranath's paintings were exhibited in London and Paris in 1913, followed by another international exhibition in Japan in 1919.

The artist passed away in 1951, and his works of art where considered as National Art Treasures.


Born in Bihar on December 1882

Nandlal Bose rose to become one of modern India's most important artists. A product of GCAC, Bose was mentored by Havell and Abanindranath Tagore. His integrity and intent idealism were reflected as well as widened with his nationalistic consciousness, his commitment for classical and folk art, along with its underlying spirituality and symbolism. The early philosophical inspirations came from Havell, Coomaraswamy and Sister Nivedita, while aesthetic choices were influenced by Japanese painting.

Between 1922-51, he taught at the Indian School of Oriental Art and was principal at Kala Bhavan, Santiniketan at the request of Rabindranath Tagore. Nandalal Bose was fascinated by nature and all her colors. The dawn and evening, rivers and mountains, birds and animals filled him with a sense of wonder. Bose's life as an artist had many facets. He made no distinction between the big and the small. Art for the people's sake was his principle. Bose retrospectives were held at Calcutta in 1954 and at the Centenary Retrospective Exhibition, National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi in 1982.

Nandalal Bose played a leading role in the renaissance of art in India. He passed away in 1966.

SADEQUAIN (1930 – 1987)

Born 1930, Amroha, India

B.A. in Art History, Agra University (1948)

Sadequain Naqqash was one of the first Pakistani artists to gain international recognition, embarking on his notable career with an award from the Biennale de Paris in 1961. The artist was born in Amroha,
India, descending from a family of Qu'ran scribes and is recognised as the foremost calligrapher and painter of Pakistan, responsible for the renaissance of Islamic calligraphy in the country since the late 1960s and bringing the artform into the mainstream. In the late 1940s, Sadequain joined the Progressive Writers and Artists Movement and through his career, produced works of thematic content reflected by his commitment to social justice, and the progressive ideals of his peers of writers and poets. On the eve of Partition, Sadequain painted anti-British, nationalistic slogans in Dehli and such
politically-charged works gained the artist a wider, responsive audience both abroad and in Pakistan among the 1960s intelligentsia.

Sadequain's unique visual vocabulary stemmed from the complex merging of Eastern (calligraphy) and Western (figurative) traditions in art, alongside Hindu and Muslim ideology. Sweeps of a calligraphic brush are echoed in the artist's flamboyant approach to painting figures but his forms and themes are also partly biographical. Contortions to figurative style arose from his observation of wild, defiant cacti growing against the odds in the deserts of Gadani (Karachi) which left an indelible impression on the artist and his work. Colours used are simplistic, untempered by nuance or subtlety, but are given strong structures through Sadequain's contrast of etched strokes.

In terms of Sadequain's work in calligraphy, outside of Quranic verses, the artist's affinity to literature resulted in works illustrating the classical poetry of Iqbal, Ghalib and Faiz. With the support of state
patronage, Sadequain completed many celebrated commissions, notably the ceiling of Lahore Museum and the ambitious mural "The Treasures of Time" for the State Bank of Pakistan, depicting the evolution of mankind and tracing the history of great intellectuals. Other commissions include
The Power House at the Mangla Dam, Geological Institute of India, Banaras Hindu University and Aligarh Muslim University. In 2003, a retrospective entitled "The Holy Sinner: Sadequain" was exhibited at the Mohatta Palace Museum, Karachi.

Sadequain died on February 10, 1987 in Karachi at the age of 57.

Select Solo Exhibitions

1981 International Trade Fair, New Delhi
Indian Council for Cultural Relations at State Lalit Kala Academy, Rabindra Bhawan, New Delhi
1970 Arts Council of Pakistan Karachi
Liaquat Memorial Hall, Rawalpindi
1966 Retrospective Exhibition of 300 paintings at the Banking Hall of the State Bank Headquarters,
1962 Galerie Lambert, Paris
1954-60 Held numerous one-man exhibitions at Quetta Residency, and in Karachi at Prime Minister H.
S. Suhrawardy's residence, Frare Hall, executed murals in Jinnah Central Hospital, Karachi
Airport, Services Club, and Mangla Dam Committee Room

Select Group Exhibitions

1982 Kennedy Hall, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh
Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi
Urdu Ghar, Hyderabad
Lalit Kala Academy, Lucknow, India
Ghalib Academy, New Delhi
1969 Arts Council Building, Karachi
1965 Several exhibitions in France including Nouran Havre, Palais de la Mediterranean, Chateau-
Musee Annecy, Musee Casino Dieppe, Casino de Charbonnieres, and Musee Macon
Arts Council Gallery, Karachi; Alhamra, Lahore
1964 Galerie Presboug, Paris
1963 Commonwealth Institute Galleries, London
N.V.C. Gallery, London
5th Salon of the "Young and Great Artists," Museum of Modern Art, Paris


1982 International Gold Mercury Award
1962 Awarded president's medal for Pride of Performance
1960 Awarded Tamgha-e-Imtiaz and First Prize in the All Pakistan National Exhibition of Paintings
Awarded Laureate Biennale de Paris by the International Jury of Critics


Born 1924, Saligaon, Goa, India.
Died 2002, Bombay, India.

Diploma in Painting, Sir J.J. School of Art, Mumbai (1940-45)
Italian Government Scholarship, study tour of Italy (1960)
Francis Newton Souza was born in India in 1924 and is of Goan Christian origin. As one of the co-founders of the Progressive Artists' Group in 1947, along with M.F. Husain, Raza, Ara and others, Souza led the edge of the Indian modernist art movement. He is widely recognised as a leading modernist and was the only Indian artist to be included in Tate Modern's group exhibition on 20th Century Modernism in 2002.
An iconoclast known for his powerful imagery, F. N. Souza unrestrained and graphic style created much controversy in his life and work. His repertoire of subjects covers still life, landscape, nudes and icons of Christianity, rendered boldly in a frenzied distortion of form. Souza's paintings express defiance and impatience with convention and the banality of everyday life.
Souza's works have reflected the influence of various schools of art: the folk art of his native Goa, the full-blooded paintings of the Renaissance, the religious fervor of the Catholic Church, the landscapes of 18th and 19th century Europe and the path-breaking work of the cubists. A recurrent theme in his work is the sexual tensions and friction within the male and female relationship and their ensuing conflicts. In drawings, Souza uses line with economy but captures fine detail in his forms; or uses a profusion of crosshatched strokes that make up the overall structure of his subject.
In 1942, Souza was expelled from the J.J. School of Art for partaking in the 'Quit India' movement. He left for London in 1949, making his mark on the European art scene and rose to fame with his 1955 one-man show at Gallery One, London – the same year his autobiographical essay 'Nirvana of a Maggot' was published. Souza exhibited internationally during his lifetime, solo and group shows include the Institute of Contemporary Arts, London (1954); Venice Biennale (1954); Guggenheim Museum, USA (1958); Whitechapel Art Gallery, London (1958); Tate Gallery (1968); Museum of Modern Art, Sao Paulo/Rio de Janeiro (1961); Guggenheim Foundation, USA (1967); Museum of Modern Art, Oxford, UK (1982); Royal Academy of Art, London (1982); Hirschhorn Museum, Washington D.C (1982); Retrospectives include India House, London (1951, organised by Mr. V.K. Krishna Menon, then High Commissioner), and two organised by Art Heritage Gallery, Delhi (1986, 1996).
Select Solo and Group Exhibitions – Posthumous

2008 Summer collection, works by modern and contemporary south Asian artists,
Aicon Gallery, London

2008 Winter Moderns, an exhibit of five senior modern Indian artists - M.F. Husain,
F.N. Souza, Shyamal Dutta Ray, Satish Gujral and B. Prabha, Aicon Gallery,
New York

2008 'The Ghost of Souza', an exhibit of works by acclaimed artist Francis Newton
Souza, together with Indian and Pakistani artists influenced by Souza's work at
Aicon Gallery, New York

2007 From the Vault, Aicon Gallery, London and New York
Bacon, Freud, Mehta, Souza, Grosvenor Vadehra, New Delhi

2005-6 F. N. Souza, Religion & Erotica: Tate Britain, London
Self-Portrait, Renaissance to contemporary: National Portrait Gallery, London

2005 Francis Newton Souza, Saffronart and Grosvenor Gallery, London/New York
Ashta Nayak: Eight Pioneers of Indian Art, Gallery ArtsIndia, New York
Modern Indian Paintings, Grosvenor Gallery, London
A Tribute to F. N. SOUZA, Kumar Gallery, New Delhi /Manifestations III, Nehru Centre,
Mumbai; Rabindra Bhavan, New Delhi, and Delhi Art Gallery, New Delhi

2004 Manifestations II, Jehangir Gallery and the Delhi Art Gallery
Ethos: Contemporary Indian Art, Indigo Blue Art, Singapore
Souza in London, curated by Yashodhara Dalmia from the Bhayana family collection,
Council, New Delhi

2003 Modern Indian Painting, Grosvenor Gallery London
Francis Newton Souza: Works on paper, Saffronart, Mumbai
F.N Souza: A Definitive Retrospective, Gallery Artsindia, New York
Manifestations, Delhi Art Gallery

2002 Souza and Friends, Grosvenor Gallery, London,.
Souza in Bombay and Goa, Art Musings Gallery, Mumbai

2001 Souza: A Modern Myth, Gallery 88, Calcutta

Select Solo Exhibitions

1999 Copeland Fine Art Gallery, Columbus, Ohio, USA
1998 Bose Pacia Modern, New York
1997 Souza: A Retrospective, Julian Hartnolls Gallery, London
1996 Art Heritage, NEw Delhi
' Souza from the Alkazi Collection', Academy of Fine Arts and Literature New Delhi
The Acrylics of Souza, L.T.G. Art Gallery, New Delhi
1995 The Chemicals of Souza, L. T.G. Art Gallery, New Delhi
1993 Souza, 1940s-1990s Dhoomimal Art Gallery, New Delhi
1983 Souza in the Forties, Dhoomimal Art Gallery, New Delhi
1985 Pundole Art Gallery, Mumbai
1976 Dhoomimal Art Gallery,New Delhi
1975 76 Arts 38, London.
1968 London Arts Gallery Detroit, USA.
1966 Dhoomimal Art Gallery, New Delhi
1966 Grosvenor Gallery, London
1963 Taj Gallery Mumbai.
1962 Kumar Gallery, New Delhi.
1961 Gallery One, London
62 North Audley Street London.
1960 Gallery One, London
1959 Gallery One, London
1957 Gallery One, London
1955 Gallery One, London.
1954 Institute of Contemporary Arts, London
Gallery Creuze,London
1951 Indian Embassy, London

Select Group Exhibitions

2001 Souza & Baiju, Saffronart and Apparao Galleries, Mumbai
1996 National Gallery of Modern Art, Mumbai
1987 Coups de Coeur, Halles de L'Ile, Geneva
1986 Dhoomimal Art Gallery, New Delhi
1985 East-West Visual Arts Encounter, Bombay
1982 Modern Indian Paintings, Hirschorn Museum & Sculpture Garden Washington D.C.
India: Myth and Reality, Museum of Modern Art, Oxford, UK
Contemporary Indian Art, Royal Academy, London
1977 Commonwealth Artists of Fame, London
1972 Minneapolis International Art Festival, USA
1968 Tate Gallery, London
1967 Guggenheim Foundation USA
1965 Art Now in India, Arts Council of Great Britain, London
1964 Grosvenor Gallery, 1964
1962 Commonwealth Institute, London
1961 Museum of Modern Art, Sao Paulo/Rio de Janeiro
1958 Guggenheim Museum, USA
Whitechapel Art Gallery, London
1957 John Moore's Exhibition, Walker Art Gallery Liverpool
1956,57,59,60 Gallery One, London
1954 Venice Biennale Italy
Institute of Contemporary Arts, London
1949 Bombay Art Society Salon, Mumbai
1948 Progressive Artists' Group, inaugural exhibition


1960 Italian Government Scholarship (through the British Council)
1967 Guggenheim International Award, New York
1957 John Moores Prize, Liverpool

Public Collections

National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi
Baroda Museum, Baroda
National Gallery of Modern Art, Mumbai
CIMA – Centre International Modern Art, Calcutta
Delhi Art Gallery, New Delhi
Tate, London, UK
Glenbarra Museum, Himeji, Japan


Born 1922 in Babaria, Madhya Pradesh, India

Nagpur School of Art, Nagpur (1939-43)
Studied at Sir J.J. School of Art, Mumbai (1943-47)
Ecole Nationale des Beaux-Arts, Paris (1950-53)

Since he began painting in the early 1940s in India, Raza's subject, style and technique have evolved in distinct stages through his migration to France, his interaction with Abstract Expressionism through the 1950s and 1960s and his return to a core Indian aesthetic philosophy in the 1970's. These periods of Raza's work, though distinct, form a continuum - one that is a testament to the artist's constant negotiation to develop his painterly vision. Breaking away from frames like nation and specific locations in time and space, Raza's body of work is trans-cultural in its appeal, making this retrospective an especially significant event for Indian Art on a worldwide stage.

Select Solo Exhibitions

2007 Raza; a retrospective, Saffronart, New York
Celebrating 85 Years of Living Legend S H Raza, a Traveling Exhibition at Hong Kong,
Singapore, Dubai, Mumbai, New Delhi organized by Aryan Art Gallery, New Delhi
2006 Rang Ras – S. H. Raza, Tao Art Gallery, Mumbai
Metamorphosis, Aryan Art Gallery, Mumbai, Delhi and Hong Kong
2005 Saffronart and Berkeley Square Gallery, London and New York
Aryan Art Gallery, Delhi
Tao Art Gallery, Mumbai
2004 Aryan Art Gallery, Delhi
2002 Jehangir Art Gallery, Sharan Apparao Gallery, Gallery Chemould, Mumbai
1999 Gallery Art 54, New York
1997 Le Parcons du regard, Oletta, Corsices, France
Galleri Grewal Mohanjeet, Paris
Roopankar Museum of Fine Arts, Bharat Bhavan, Bhopal; Jehangir Art Gallery, Mumbai;
National Gallery of Modern Art, Delhi.
1994 L'Artheque d'Enterprise, Group Michel Ferrier, Echirolle, Grenoble
1992 Jehangir Nicholsan Museum, National Centre for Performing Arts, Mumbai
Parcours des Arts, La Louvesc, France
1991 Galerie Eterso, Cannes

Select Group Exhibitions

2008 Freedom 2008 : Sixty Years After Indian Independence, Centre for International Modern Art
(CIMA), Kolkata
2007-08 India Art Now: Between Continuity and Transformation, Province of Milan, Milan, Italy
2005 Aicon Gallery, New York
2004 Aryan Art Gallery, Delhi
S. H. Raza and Manish Pushkale – Recent Works', Guild Art Gallery, Mumbai
Art Musings, Mumbai
2003 Des duos et des couples, Aixen Provence, France (with Pablo Picasso and Francoise Gillot)
2002 Jane Woorhese Zimmerli Art Museum, New Jersey; Jehangir Art Gallery, Mumbai
Saffronart and Pundole Art Gallery, Metropolitan Pavilion, New York
2001 Saffronart and Pundole Art Gallery, Metropolitan Pavilion, New York
Indian Contemporary Fine Art, Saffronart and Apparao Galleries, Los Angeles
Symphony in White', Gallery 7, Mumbai
Cultural Ties, Kapil Jariwala Gallery, London
2000 Arthur M. Sackler Gallery and Smithsonian Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institute,
Washington D.C.
Fukuoka Asian Art Museum, Fukuoka, Japan

Awards and Scholarships

2007 Awarded the 'Padma Bhushani', by the Goevrnment of India
2004 Lalit Kala Ratna Puraskar, Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi
1981 Awarded the 'Padma Shri', by the Goevrnment of India
Elected Fellow of the Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi
Awarded Kalidas Sanman National Award, Government of Madhya Pradesh
1956 Awarded the 'Prix de la Critique', Paris
1948 Gold Medal, Bombay Art Society, Mumbai
1946 Silver Medal, Bombay Art Society, Mumbai


Born 1940, Andhra Pradesh, India

Diploma, Government College of Art and Architecture, Hyderabad (1963)
Studied Mural Painting and Printmaking at M.S. University, Baroda (1963-65)

Lives and works in Hyderabad


Laxma Goud is recognized for his graceful, yet powerful line drawings, etchings and watercolors. The artist was born in Nizampur, Andhra Pradesh in 1940 and earned a diploma in drawing and painting from the Government College of Art and Architecture, Hyderabad, in 1963. He then studied mural painting and printmaking at M.S. University, Baroda. By the late 1960s, Goud had developed a distinct style with finely chiseled, yet pliant lines and delicate washes of color that he used to depict man's interaction with nature.

According to Goud, 'there is eroticism in nature itself." Humor, earthiness and vitality emerge as Goud transforms the characters of his works - man into goat, goat into woman, and man and woman peer lustfully at each other. Goud also explores man's connection to his environment. From men, women, goats, huts to vegetation, Laxma's simple images reflect an idyllic reality that is slowly being threatened by urbanisation. The works recreate the rural landscape as if it is frozen in time. The color, innocence, simplicity, flora and fauna are indicative of the bucolic naivety.

Apart from Goud's great narrative ability, the artist's remarkable skill and sophistication in handling his medium (pencil or brush) are evident. A master draughtsman, Goud is a versatile printmaker and painter and has worked in a variety of mediums: etching, gouache, pastel and grass paintings. Incisiveness, hatched lines and a keen eye for detail have been his trademark forte. He was a favored artist by the Herwitzes and was the most represented artist in their collection.

Select Solo Exhibitions

2009 Laxma Goud: Solo Exhibition, Aicon Gallery, London
2007 Laxma Goud 40 years: A Retrospective, Aicon Gallery, New York
2006 Sculptures, Bronze and Terra-cottas, Guild Art Gallery, Mumbai
2003 Aicon Gallery, New York
2001-02 Grey Art Gallery, New York

Select Group Exhibitions

2008 Summer collection, works by modern and contemporary south Asian artists,
Aicon Gallery, London
2007 From the Vault, Aicon Gallery, London and New York
2006 Back to the Future, Gallery Espace, New Delhi
1986 Indian Art Tomorrow, Philips Collection, Washington D.C.
1977 São Paulo Biennale, Brazil